Club Deportivo Palestino’s banned jersey

by Carlos Medina Lahsen, para Asifuch
Original Article (spanish): https://asifuch.cl/la-camiseta-prohibida-de-palestino/

On January 4th, 2014, one of the greatest milestones in the history of Club Deportivo Palestino began. At the first match of the 2013-2014 Clausura Tournament of Chile’s First Division, when Palestino beat Everton 4-0, with 3 goals from Roberto Gutiérrez (1), the teams’s leaders, together with Roberto Abusada, owner of the sportswear manufacturer Training Profesional, wanted an innovate  new jersey design, which replaced the number ‘1’ with a map of Historic Palestine (present-day Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories that lasted until 1947) (2), a country that, at the time the club was founded, both Jews, Christians and Muslims coexisted within its limits in a peaceful way.

Image 01: Roberto Gutiérrez in the victory of Palestino 4-0 over Everton (1)
Image 02: First Design of the jersey presented by
the Club Deportivo Palestino in January 2014 (2)

Representatives of the Jewish community in Chile considered that using the map as a number on the jersey was a hostile act, that the conflict mattered and that they ignored Israel’s right to exist. A series of discussions were opened on twitter and in the press.

For example, the next day, Gabriel Zaliasnik, the famous criminal lawyer of the University of Chile, and former president of the Jewish Community of Chile published a series of tweets about it the day after the game against Everton (3):

“You have to put a bell on the cat. Shameful that the Palestinian leadership dirty Chilean football. Hatred and fanaticism have no limits.”

“Will Sergio Jadue (president of Chilean Association of Football) endorse the irresponsibility of the leadership of the Palestinian Club? He should be the first to take letters in regrettable injury. “

“At least Club Palestino is honest about things. They do not aspire to peace for 2 peoples but rather they totally deny Israel’s right to exist. “


 “Irresponsible leaders of the Palestinian Club gave themselves a little taste that offends the entire Jewish community in Chile. This is unprecedented”.


“We must study disaffiliation from the Palestinian Club. Tolerating their conduct contrary to FIFA regulations may imply sanctions on Chilean football”

There was even an exchange with the twitter user FVelosoC that same day:

@FVelosoC: “hey @gzaliasnik relax, the No. 1 in Club Deportivo Palestino’s jersey only represents the borders of the longed-for State of Israel (without Palestinians, of course)”
 
@gzaliasnik: “the Golan is missing hahaha”.

Shai Agosin, another former president of the Chilean Jewish Community, posted on twitter:

“How long will the conflict in the Middle East matter to our Chile, dirtying even sports, very badly the Palestinian leadership.”
 
Shame that Palestinian leaders use sport for propaganda and erase Israel from the map, is that your intention?”

And Gerardo Gorodischer, at that time president of the Jewish Community of Chile, published:

“Rejection of the Club Deportivo Palestino imports the problem of the Middle East, use the complete map of Israel as 1 on his jersey”

Back then, the Palestinian Federation of Chile replied to the comments with a public statement dated January 6th, 2014 (4):

“1. We deeply regret that the Chilean Zionists intend to import the Middle East conflict to our country, trying to muddy history and the fundamental contribution that Deportivo Palestino has made to the development of sport in our country and especially in the commune of La Cisterna, where it has been located for several decades, carrying out important work for the benefit of the community.
 
2. We recall that Deportivo Palestino and its symbols have existed in our country since 1920, 28 years before the establishment of the State of Israel in Palestine, so the attempted victimization and political use that some defenders of Israel and Their policies of physical and political extermination of the Palestinian people make an institution like this one.
 
3. We hope that, if the Zionists of Chile are really interested in stopping importing the conflict, before attempting to attack the Chilean-Palestinian community and its historical organizations, they will give up continuing to send young Chileans to receive military training in Israel and to the constant support that they express for the systematic violations of that state, regarding the human and national rights of the Palestinians.
 
4. We deplore the hypocrisy of those who express outrage at the presence of this map, while speaking of the occupied territories as disputed territories and continuing to endorse the construction of illegal settlements and the segregation wall in Palestine, both deplored by the entire community and international legality.
 
5. We are grateful for the sincere expressions of solidarity of the Chilean people in the face of this cunning and interested attack, and very especially to the Jews of our country who have expressed their solidarity with us along with the rejection of all the policies of physical and political extermination of Israel and its defenders scattered all over the earth ”.

Historical and Geo-political Context through maps

Before getting into the repercussions this jersey design had, it is necessary to understand the historical maps involved (5).

Image 03: Map of the British Mandate
of Palestine (1922-1947) (5)

First we will see the map of the British Mandate of Palestine, which, after the First World War and the creation of the League of Nations, defined the borders of Historic Palestine, between 1922 and 1947.

Knowing that Club Deportivo Palestino was Founded in 1920, it is prior to this year when the great mass of Palestinian immigrants arrived in Chile to start a new life.

Later, after the British government were quite favorable to  the Zionist immigration in Palestine but was no longer functional, on November 29th, 1947, the United Nations, after the atrocities committed by the Nazis during the Second War against the Jews and after a great lobby by the Zionist movement and the United States, it was decided to approve a Partition Plan of Palestine (6), which would create a Jewish State with 56% of all the territory, while 43% would remain for the Arab State, leaving 1% for Jerusalem and Bethlehem as international territory. The plan was already unfair enough, since the affected population were never consulted on any decisions to carry out the plan. On the other hand, the Muslim, Christian and Arab population represented 66% of the total, while the population of Jewish origin, despite the tremendous migrations to Palestine, represented 34% of the total population. For this very reason, the native population opposed the plan, while the Zionist leadership supported it.

After the partition took place, on May 14th, 1948 the independence of the State of Israel was proclaimed, but the independence of an Arab or Palestinian state was not proclaimed. At the same time, seven Arab countries declare war on the nascent state, which is known as the Arab-Israeli war. The Arab countries sent a small group of troops, who were poorly equipped compared to the Jewish paramilitary forces (Haganah, Lehi and Irgun), were much better prepared.

Image 04: Plan Partition of Palestine (1947) (5)

This war had catastrophic consequences for the Palestinian population:

1. The nascent State of Israel expanded the territories granted by the UN, to occupy 78% of the total territory.

2. An Arab or Palestinian State was not founded, as Jordan annexed the territory of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem; and Egypt annexed the Gaza Strip. This implied that these Arab countries were not interested in creating a Palestinian state either. Even the Israeli historian Ilan Pappe (7) indicates that the Zionist leadership was coordinated by King Abdallah of Jordan, so as not to attack the Jewish forces and divide the West Bank.

Image 05: Armistice Line of 1949 (5)

3. The war (and even Jewish incursions prior to May 14th, as part of the Dalet Plan) caused many Palestinian inhabitants to leave their homes and their lands, either out of fear, or to protect their families, hoping to be able to return when the war was over. Some 700,000 Palestinians were displaced, because Israel did not let them return to their homes, while another group became refugees, waiting for the conflict to be resolved by living in precarious camps maintained by the UNRWA (UN Agency for Palestinian Refugees).  These camps still exist to this day. In fact, UN General Assembly resolution 194 (6) says that Palestinian refugees have the right to return to their original homes, whether in Palestinian or Israeli territory, but Israel has always prevented them.

4. The Arab-Israeli war ended when an armistice was signed in 1949, where Israel signed an agreement together with Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. In said armistice, the so-called green line was established, which deminished the territory of the West Bank (image 05).

In 1967, after a blitzkrieg attack by Israel on Egypt and Syria, called the ‘Six Day War’, Israel annexed the Egyptian territories of the Sinai Peninsula, the Syrian Golan Heights, outside the Occupied Strip, Gaza and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem.

Since 1967, Israel begins to colonize the territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with a plan developed by Yigal Allon, minister of labor and head of the Ministerial Committee on Settlements, to establish a “Jewish presence” in non-densely populated areas of the West Bank. by Palestinians, encompassing the eastern parts of the West Bank (Jordan Valley and the desert area east of Jerusalem). The colonization and annexation of these areas was initially conceived as necessary for state security and as part of a plan to keep certain areas of the West Bank as part of the Jewish state. (8)

Image 06: Map of Israel, after
the Six Day War (1967) (5)

Years later, Egypt and Israel sign the Camp David Agreement of 1978, where they sign for peace regarding their territorial conflicts.

Image 07: Israel, Occupied Palestinian Territories
and the Golan Heights (5)

In 1979, Egypt formally recognized Israel, on the condition that Israel withdraw its troops and settlements from the Sinai Peninsula. In turn, Egypt would not demand the creation of a Palestinian state. The process was fully completed in 1982, when Israel withdrew its entire contingent.

On the other hand, Resolution 242 of the UN Security Council, of November 22th, 1967, established mainly the withdrawal of the Israeli armed forces from territories they occupied during the recent conflict.

The technical point that Israel relies on in order not to cease the occupation is the difference between the English and French versions of the same resolution. The English version refers to ‘withdrawal from the Occupied Territories’ and the French version reads ‘withdrawal from the Occupied Territories’. That is, it only respects the English version, but not the French version of it. (9)

In 1993, Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) sign a series of agreements, where the PLO recognizes Israel, while Israel recognizes the PLO as a valid interlocutor of the Palestinian people.

Autonomy zones are available:

A: Palestinian civil and police control (17.1%)
B: Palestinian civil control and Israeli military control (23.9%)
C: Israeli civil and military control (59%), in white in image 08.

Areas B and C were supposed to come under Palestinian control in the coming months, but that moment never came. Meanwhile, Israel continued to build settlements in these territories.

Image 08: Zones A, B and C in the West Bank (10)

Meanwhile, on October 26th, 1994, the Jordanian-Israeli Peace Treaty was signed. where Jordan would recognize Israel, and they reached an agreement on issues such as: borders, security, water, freedom of movement, Muslim religious places, among others…

Since 2002, Israel begins building a wall. The wall is supposed to separate the West Bank from Israeli territory. However; the boundary contour of the wall goes well into the Palestinian territories of the West Bank, yet again confiscating more territories to build more  settlements. In fact, on the map in Image 08, it can be seen that the wall’s layout (red line) goes well into the contour of the 1949 armistice line (green) in the West Bank.

Since 2005, Israel withdrew settlements and troops from the Gaza Strip. In 2006, Hamas won the legislative elections and Israel has maintained a tight blockade, both by land, air and sea, as well as exploiting all natural resources, denying the inhabitants of that territory any of the benefits.

Israeli Maps

Comparing the maps obtained from the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs (11), the differences can be appreciated compared to the United Nations maps.

Images 09 and 10: Distance and topographic maps of Israel, including
the Golan Heights and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (11)

If we consider the maps in Images 09 and 10, it can be seen that they include within their limits the West Bank and the Golan Heights. In neither of these maps are the boundaries drawn between the Palestinian National Authority or the Occupied Palestinian Territories and Israel, nor that the Golan Heights in the north are formally Syrian. Even on the topographic map (image 10), the West Bank is called Samaria (north) and Judea (south).
It can also be seen that they are not currently including the territory of the Gaza Strip, but they are not calling it part of a Palestinian territory either.

Image 11: Map of the Golan Heights annexed to Israeli territory, according to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs (11)
Image 12: Map of Jerusalem according to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, including East Jerusalem (11)

Regarding the map in Image 11, it can be clearly seen that the Golan Heights (blue zone) is considered to be part of Israel, and that the limits of international legality provided by the United Nations are simply not respected.

Something similar occurs on the map of Jerusalem, in Image 12. Israel considers all of Jerusalem, both the east and west sides, to belong to it. Whereas the international legality states that East Jerusalem is Palestinian (where the walled old city is included) and West Jerusalem belongs to the Israeli side.

Con respecto al mapa de la imagen 11, se puede apreciar claramente que se considera que los Altos del Golán (zona azul) son parte de Israel, y que no se respetan los límites de la legalidad internacional que proporciona Naciones Unidas.

Algo parecido ocurre en el mapa de Jerusalén, en la imagen 12. Israel considera que todo Jerusalén, tanto el lado este como el lado oeste, le pertenece. Mientras que la legalidad internacional dice que Jerusalén Este es palestino (donde se incluye la ciudad vieja amurallada) y Jerusalén Oeste pertenece al lado israelí.

Repercussions of the jersey in Chile

The president of Ñublense, Patrick Kiblisky, an active member of the Jewish community, made a formal complaint to the court of the National Professional Football Association. The strange thing is that 12 years earlier, in 2002, the goalkeeper Leonardo Cauterucchi used a jersey with the map of Historical Palestine, without great problems or scandal (12):

“It was my own decision… I didn’t do it with a political connotation. It was only a tribute to a people who were suffering a lot from the war at that time. I thought it was a nice gesture with them.”
Imagen 13: Arquero Leonardo Cauterucchi, en temporada 2002 (2)

Seeing that the Palestinian did not take measures to remove the map from the jersey, Kiblisky raised the complaint through the Israeli Foreign Ministry, citing Oscar Alcamán, at that time in charge of business at the Chilean Embassy in Israel (13).

Before the second date of the tournament, against Universidad de Chile, Gerardo Gorodischer returned to the charge with statements to the press, such as (14):

“Palestino is going to carry a series of articles from the ANFP. We will go to FIFA to have those numbers withdrawn.”
“What is going to happen on Friday with the Jewish fans that the U has? The Club Deportivo Palestino thing is disrespectful”

While the board of the Club Deportivo Palestino argued (14):

“For example, we could say that Muslims criticize the Catholic University for using the cross or linking the Francisco Franco regime with the Spanish Union eagle … For the rest, we do not understand the annoyance: there are no slogans of the type on the jerseys ‘Free Palestine’ “.

“If we change the numbers we would recognize the error and we have not made any mistake”

On January 10th, Palestino played against Universidad de Chile with the same jersey with the maps instead of numbers ‘1’. Just as if the ‘U’ supporters had listened to Gerardo Gorodischer, early in the second half he displayed a map of Historic Palestine, along with throwing flares in clear support for the Palestinian community. (15)

The match was quite close, and anecdotally, Palestino won 1-0 with a goal from Ignacio Duma in the 84th minute, a player who was discarded by the University of Chile for this season. As if that were not enough, the victory left Palestino as the leader with 6 points, tied with Universidad de Concepción and Universidad Católica.

At the same time, Patrick Kiblinsky added from Miami, referring to the complaint about the Club Deportivo Palestino’s jersey: “This has nothing to do with my status as a member of the Jewish community. The issue is fundamental. We do not want football to be politicized. It is a very serious precedent. Tomorrow any club can promote a political party, the Hidro-Aysén project or the Mapuche cause on its jersey” (15)

On January 13th, for the third date, Palestino meets Santiago Wanderers as a visitor at the Lucio Fariña de Quillota Bicentennial Stadium, putting Palestino ahead 2-0, with goals from Roberto Gutiérrez and Sergio López. In the second half, Santiago Wanderers reacts and manages to draw 2-2. No extra-football statements were recorded after that game, but the controversy over the map jersey did not have much pause. The following day, the First Chamber of the ANFP Penalty Court gave its verdict regarding the validity of the jersey with the maps.

The association did not consider this to be a political symbol, so it only fined Palestino with UF 30 (UF 10 for every game played with that jersey) (UF is an a non-circulating chilean currency adjusted by inflation) because the size of the numbers (16), specifically for violating article 39, N°3 of the Rules of the Chilean Professional Football First Division Closing Championship: “The players’ jersey must have a number of 25 cm. Tall”. Faced with the ruling, Palestino decided not to appeal, but Fernando Aguad, president of the club, did not let the moment pass to comment (17):

“(The ruling) does not prevent us from using our historical symbol as we see fit. Anyone who feels annoyed with the use of symbols, and I have no doubt that in the Jewish community they could fall into that extreme and could ask that the colors of the Palestinian flag be vetoed on our jerseys”

“It is documented that it was already used in clothing and it is not a matter of claim, it is only the map of the region where the neighborhood to which the club belongs comes from”

Given this, Palestino decided to change the design of the jersey, keeping a golden map of Historical Palestine on his chest (18) in the match against Universidad de Concepción, winning 1-0 with a head shoot from Nicolás Suarez, which woke up even more The anger of the Chilean Jewish community, claiming a provocation by the club, and the pressure even transferred it to government authorities in Chile and around the world, including a statement from the Israeli Embassy in Chile (19):

“The Israeli Embassy considers that the use of the map of Israel on the Club Deportivo Palestino’s jersey is an unprecedented provocation and especially serious because it is carried out in a sporting context”

“To continue using this map in any way on the jersey of that team constitutes for us a political expression that seeks to deny the existence of the State of Israel”
Image 14: Jersey design with the golden map on the chest (18)

As a result of this claim, the Palestinian Federation of Chile responded to said embassy with strong arguments (20):

“The map that Deportivo Palestino wears is that of historical Palestine and it could be that of Israel, since that figure is impossible to draw, given that said country has never set its borders. The day this happens, we ask that Embassy to be kind enough to bring it to our attention. In any case, said emblem does not pronounce on the so-called ‘existence’.

If the Embassy qualifies this as an unprecedented provocation, how could one qualify Israel’s stubborn attitude of installing new illegal settlements in the course of peace talks? And furthermore, for the record, this last situation does have innumerable precedents.
It is pathetic to observe how the fourth world military power appears publicly begging for the recognition of a people whom it keeps crushed, impoverished and terrified by a military occupation that has lasted 65 years.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, we categorically affirm that no member of the Palestinian people, in their right mind, is in a position to deny the existence of the State of Israel: the usurpations, imprisonments, assaults, humiliations and deaths that its members suffer at the hands of every day. of the Israeli occupation army, constitute a permanent and unavoidable reminder of that existence ”.

In the meantime, due to the tremendous start of the championship (leader with 10 points like Colo-Colo), after the match against Universidad de Concepción, Roberto Gutierrez, the team’s top scorer until that moment, is unexpectedly sold to Atlante de México, causing the just claim of the technical director Emiliano Astorga (21): “It is not easy to fight for the victory when they take away players with the tournament started.” To replace Gutierrez, Renato Ramos (from Lota Schwager) and Claudio Latorre (from San Marcos de Arica) arrived, but they were not yet ready to play ninety minutes.

But the controversy over the jersey was not only there. After the match against Universidad de Concepción, the journalist Marco Antonio Cumsille narrated the meeting (22) of Ángel Botto, at that time president of the Disciplinary Court of the ANFP, with Ricardo Abumohor, former president of the governing body of rented football and also former president of the Club Deportivo Palestino from the 1970s, and then president of Club Deportivo O’Higgins.

Both, descendants of Palestinian immigrants, met at the Amura Café to discuss this issue, where Ricardo Abumohor allegedly told him that the case of the map on the jersey was political and that Botto should rule against Palestino. The latter, agreeing with Abumohor, sent FIFA a letter denouncing the event as a political act, even before the case was presented to the ANFP Disciplinary Court. Furthermore, the statement made the same mistake as Patrick Kiblinsky in its original complaint, placing Resolution No. 181 of the United Nations on the Partition of Palestine dated “November 20th, 1947”, when it should have been the 29th.

Likewise, in that letter Botto appears as “president of the Disciplinary Court of the Chilean Football Federation”, when that court depends on the ANFP and not on the Federation. FIFA responded at first (January 17th) (23) that the case was purely sports and that the Disciplinary Court had to act in accordance with the sports field, since it involved local league matches. Then, on January 22th, FIFA sends another letter to the ANFP, canceling the first statement, and further explaining that Botto contacted them on a personal level, without representing the Chilean Football Federation, finishing off that any future correspondence must be sent by the president of the ANFP (at that time Sergio Jadue) or by the secretary of general of the Federation (Nibaldo Jaque).

After Botto’s shameful letter, Palestino seriously considered taking the case to the ANFP Council of Presidents on January 30. Given this, Botto defended himself saying that “the facts are out of context and I am not interested in airing them publicly. If I have to clarify something in any formal instance, I have no problem doing so.”

On the other hand, Ricardo Abumohor, already troubled with the Palestinian community itself, and especially with Fernando Aguad, who did not want to answer the phone to clarify the issue, stated the following: “The facts are radically opposite to what was lightly said. In the first place, I did not set up a meeting with Botto. We met in a cafe. There the Palestinian issue came up and I expressly told him that I thought this should be seen from a strictly sports and not a political point of view. ” Then he added: “Without trying to influence Ángel Botto, who is a person who does not allow himself to be influenced by anyone, I pointed out that I wanted Palestino not to be sanctioned, because I feel a deep bond with the colony. That is all.”

At January 31th, in the sports field, after a good run of matches, Palestino fell resoundingly 3-5 against Universidad Católica, with the ‘help’ of the lousy refereeing by Jorge Osorio, who annulled a legitimate goal for Palestino, and took two dubious penalties in favor of Universidad Católica. This defeat had the consequence that Palestino would lose the leadership in the standings (24). At the same time, the ANFP board finally rebukes Botto for the letter sent to FIFA, requesting him in writing not to act in this way again. The leaders studied a presentation of censorship against Botto, but ultimately declined to do so (25).

Meanwhile, Palestino continued to play at least his home matches with the jersey with the map on his chest. In this tournament he finished in fifth place, for which he qualified for the Pre-South American League, which gave a place to play the South American Cup the following year. This league was played by 4 teams: Universidad de Concepción, Palestino, Cobreloa and Cobresal. Finally, to the disappointment of the Palestinian fans, Cobresal wins the league by defeating Palestino in the final by a 4-3 aggregate: Cobresal won in the first leg 2-0 in El Salvador, and Palestino won in La Cisterna by 2-1. Apart from this defeat, it is recorded that the last match where Palestino used the jersey with the gold map on the chest was in the 4-0 victory over Cobreloa on May 4th, 2014 in the semifinal of that league. The finals against Cobresal (May 7th and 11th) were disputed by the black jersey, which did not have the map on the chest within its design, although it must be considered that goalkeeper Felipe Núñez did use a jersey with a map black on the chest quite sober.

Image 15: Felipe Núñez, wearing a jersey with a black map on the chest.
Palestino 2-1 Cobresal, Final match of Pre-Copa Sudamericana Cup 2014 (26)

Meanwhile, on May 23th, Ángel Botto, until then president of the Disciplinary Court, decides not to re-enroll himself in the body, after having participated in it for 21 years. It is not clear whether the controversy over Palestino’s jersey had anything to do with this or not, but he still received a tribute from the ANFP at the Council of Presidents that same day.

In June 2014, the O’Higgins Sports Club (whose owner was Ricardo Abumohor, a former leader of Palestino) asked the Council of Presidents of the ANFP to modify the rules of the tournament to finally ban the map, as well as any national symbol of another country, on the jersey of the Chilean tournament teams. The clubs that were against the change in the tournament rules were, apart from Palestino, Colo-Colo, San Luis and Unión La Calera (27). Whether due to pressure or not from the leaders of the Palestinian Sports Club, and from the Palestinian community itself, Ricardo Abumohor suspended Pablo Hoffman from his duties, who allegedly would have requested such a change from the ANFP (28), although the damage had already been done : Palestino could not continue playing with the map of Palestine on the back, but he still occupies the symbol on the sleeves and socks.

Weeks later, at the start of the 2014-2015 Opening Championship, Pablo Guede debuting on the bench as DT, the Palestino players painted their arms in protest after the ANFP prohibited the club from using the map in the Opening tournament. that in the previous contest they had put on the numbers of the jersey, in the first instance, and after the warnings of the Federation, forward at chest height. (29)

The players carried in their arms painted the map of Palestine; on the left in color and on the right in black, as a symbol of mourning for the 450 victims in Gaza as a result of Israel’s military offensive. In addition, a minute of silence was held for the Gaza victims during the match.

Image 16: Players carried the map of Palestine in their arms;
on the left in color and on the right in black. Palestino 1-2 Cobreloa, July 20th, 2014. (29)

Currently, Club Deportivo Palestino continues to use the map of Historical Palestine in its clothing, already in secondary places, such as the sleeves and stockings. But it is definitely a milestone of the club that ties you more strongly to the home country of your community.

Image 17: Sample 2021 home jersey design, with map on the sleeve.
Palestino 2-1 Cobresal, November 14th, 2021. (30)

Image 18: Sample 2021 home jersey design, with map on the sleeve.
Curicó Unido 1-1 Palestino, November 28th, 2021. (31)

Conclusions

Toda la campaña impulsada y lobby realizado por ciertos integrantes de la comunidad judía de Chile y de la Embajada de Israel en Chile para prohibir la camiseta de Palestino con los mapas, resultó ser un excelente mecanismo de marketing y difusión en todo el mundo para impulsar la venta de la camiseta de Palestino como nunca se había visto anteriormente (2). En especial, la camiseta utilizada por Alejandro ‘Bocha’ Carrasco, con el N°11 fue la más popular, pues tenía el par de mapas. Curiosamente, si antes de este hecho el Club Deportivo Palestino era medianamente conocido en Palestina y el Mundo Árabe por gente más o menos futbolizada, ahora era mundialmente famoso.

Finalmente, pese a todo el proceso, la F.I.F.A.  no consideró que fuera un símbolo hostil ni político, ni nunca prohibió las camisetas de Palestino con el mapa. Lo único fuera de reglamento fue el tamaño de los mapas en reemplazo de los números ‘1’.

De acuerdo a la información de los mapas revisados, obtenidos del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Israel, se puede apreciar que no respetan las resoluciones de Naciones Unidas, ya que consideran a Cisjordania como propio, así como también los Altos del Golán. Y en la práctica, esto no es diferente. Por ejemplo, en el gobierno de Barack Obama (2009-2017) se construyeron un promedio anual de 1.807 casas en territorios palestinos ocupados; mientras que en el gobierno de Donald Trump (2017-2021) esta cifra anual se elevó a 2.308 casas (32). También, en 2020 hubo un plan israelí de anexión de Cisjordania, el cual consistía en que Israel anexaría un 33% del territorio (33). Por lo expuesto, cuesta compatibilizar las declaraciones de la Embajada Israelí en Chile afirma que la camiseta de Palestino es una “expresión política que busca la negación de la existencia del Estado de Israel”, cuando en la práctica es el Estado de Israel quién se opone a la existencia de un Estado Palestino, construyendo asentamientos que hacen que la trillada ‘Solución de los dos Estados’ sea sólo una utopía con la cual la misma ONU hace gárgaras al respecto generando comunicados y resoluciones, pero que no constituyen un cambio real en terreno.

Por otro lado, no es un capricho que la Federación Palestina de Chile haya dicho que Israel “jamás ha fijado sus fronteras”, pues se ampara en el modelo británico de no poseer una constitución, por lo cual, no ha definido sus fronteras, ni tampoco está obligado a conceder igualdad de derechos a sus ciudadanos: Sólo maneja la denominadas ‘Leyes Básicas’ (34). Algunas muestras de esto es que desde 1967, Israel mantiene dos sistemas de justicia: uno dentro de Israel, y otro dentro de los Territorios Palestinos Ocupados, y es en este último donde los palestinos son juzgados solamente en tribunales militares cuando son acusados de ‘violaciones de seguridad’ por parte del ejército israelí, por mucho que la legalidad internacional ampare a dichos detenidos (35). También, el 16 de julio de 2018, el parlamento israelí aprobó la “Ley del Estado-nación judío”, la cual afirma que el derecho a la autodeterminación es exclusivo de los ciudadanos judíos y establece que Jerusalén, “completa y unida” (la parte este está ocupada por Israel desde 1967 y fue luego anexionada), es la capital del Estado. Además, otorga estatus de idioma oficial solo al hebreo, despoja al árabe de esta condición y lo relega a “lengua con un estatus especial” (36).

Finally, the role of Ricardo Abumohor, former president of Club Deportivo Palestino, who coincidentally was involved in two episodes to ban the Palestino jersey with the maps, in both designs, is curious. Finally, Club Deportivo O’Higgins, a club in which Abumohor was president at that time, was responsible for said ban, a fact that cost it the repudiation of Palestino fans, and the Chilean Palestinian community in general.

References

(1) “Palestino thrashed Everton with an outstanding performance by Roberto Gutiérrez”, Emol.com, January 04th, 2014 (Spanish)
Match report link: https://www.emol.com/noticias/deportes/2014/01/04/638016/palestino-goleo-a-everton-con-una-sobresaliente-actuacion-de-roberto-gutierrez.html
Link photos: https://www.emol.com/fotos/28514/#1263732/Palestino-gole%C3%B3-a-Everton-con-una-sobresaliente-actuaci%C3%B3n-de-Roberto-Guti%C3%A9rrez

(2) “Sales of new Club Deportivo Palestino’s jersey skyrocket: even Morocco and Germany ask for it”, Emol.com, January 22th, 2014. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.emol.com/noticias/nacional/2014/01/22/640978/la-historia-detras-de-la-comentada-camiseta-del-club-de-futbol-palestino.html

(3) Publications on twitter and by the press between January 4th and 6th, 2014 about leaders of the Jewish Community of Chile can be seen at the following links:

“The Jewish Community of Chile expressed its annoyance about Club Deportivo Palestino’s jersey “, AlAireLibre.cl, January 4th, 2014 (Spanish)
Link: https://www.alairelibre.cl/noticias/deportes/futbol/palestino/comunidad-judia-de-chile-expreso-su-molestia-por-diseno-en-la-camiseta/2014-01-04/223230.html

“Jewish Community was outraged by numbers on Club Deportivo Palestino’s jersey”, The Clinic, January 5th, 2014. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.theclinic.cl/2014/01/05/comunidad-judia-se-indigno-por-numeros-en-la-camiseta-de-palestino/

“In Chile Jewish Community outraged by new Club Deportivo Palestino’s jersey”, UnidosxIsrael.org, January 6th, 2014. (Spanish)
Link: https://unidosxisrael.org/noticias/en-chile-comunidad-judia-indignada-por-nueva-camiseta-de-palestino/

(4) “Public Declaration of the Palestinian Federation of Chile”, Chilean-Palestinian Information Office, January 6th, 2014. (Spanish)
Link: https://web.archive.org/web/20140111131933/http://oicpalestina.org/?p=13944

(5) Maps obtained from the article:
“Israel’s borders explained in maps”, September 16th, 2020
Link: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-54116567

Set of official UN maps:
Link: https://unispal.un.org/unispal.nsf/vMaps?OpenView

(6) UN resolutions on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. (Spanish)
Link: https://recortesdeorientemedio.com/resoluciones-de-la-onu-sobre-el-conflicto-palestino-israeli/

(7) “The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine”, Ilan Pappe, 2008 Spanish version, page 72.

(8) “Separate and Unequal. Israel’s Discriminatory Treatment of Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories ”, Human Right Watch, December 19th, 2010.
Link: https://www.hrw.org/report/2010/12/19/separate-and-unequal/israels- discriminatory-treatment-palestinians-occupied # _ftnref19

(9) Differences between the versions of resolution 242, in English and French.
Link: https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/242(1967)

(10) ACHA oPt (United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in the occupied Palestinian territory)
Link: https://issuu.com/ochaopt/docs/wb_oslogov-barrier_july05

(11) Maps obtained from the website of the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs:
Israel in Maps – Index. Reviewed December 2023.
Link: https://www.gov.il/en/Departments/General/israel_in_maps
Distance map: https://www.gov.il/BlobFolder/generalpage/israel-size-and-dimension/en/English_HISTORY_MAPS_SizeDimension.jpg
Topographic Map: https://www.gov.il/BlobFolder/generalpage/topographical-map-of-israel/en/English_HISTORY_MAPS_Topography1.jpg
Map of Jerusalem: https://www.gov.il/BlobFolder/generalpage/jerusalem/en/English_HISTORY_MAPS_Jerusalem.jpg
Golan Heights Map: https://www.gov.il/BlobFolder/generalpage/golan-heights/en/English_HISTORY_MAPS_GolanHeights.jpg

(12) “The controversial map was already on the club’s uniform.” El Mercurio Deportes, January 7th, 2014, page 06. (Spanish)

(13) “Conflict escalates over Palestino’s jersey: Chilean diplomat is summoned by the Israeli Foreign Ministry.” El Dinamo Magazine, January 7th, 2014. (Spanish)

(14) “It replaced the ‘1’ number with the original map of Palestine: Club Deportivo Palestino will keep the controversial numbers”, El Mercurio Deportes, January 9th, 2014, page 08. (Spanish)

(15) “Palestino came back to his controversial ‘1’ numbers”, El Mercurio Deportes, January 11th, 2014, page 09. (Spanish)

(16) Disciplinary Tribunal of the ANFP, first room, January 14th, 2014 (Spanish)
Link: https://www.24horas.cl/incoming/article1038135.ece/BINARY/FALLO%20TRIBUNAL%20DE%20DISCIPLINA

(17) “ANFP fined the club 30 UF for using it as a number. Club Deportivo Palestino anyway will wear a map on his jersey”, El Mercurio Deportes, January 21th, 2014, page 11. (Spanish)

(18) “Club Deportivo Palestino uses controversial map in the center of his jersey”, 24Horas.cl, January 24th, 2014. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.24horas.cl/deportes/torneodeclausura2014/palestino-utiliza-polemico-mapa-en-el-centro-de-su-camiseta-1045063

(19) “Embassy of Israel: Club Deportivo Palestino’s jersey ‘is a provocation’”, January 29th, 2014
Link: https://www.24horas.cl/deportes/futbol-nacional/embajada-de-israel-camiseta-de-palestino-es-una-provocacion-1051767

(20) “Palestinian Federation of Chile responded harshly to the Israeli Embassy about a jersey”, January 30th, 2014. (Spanish)
Link: https://web.archive.org/web/20140131095505/http://www.oicpalestina.org/?p=14474

(21) “It is not easy to fight for victory when players take away players with the tournament started”, El Mercurio Deportes, January 27th, 2014, page 06. (Spanish)

(22) “The numbers of Club Deportivo Palestino” El Mercurio Deportes, January 28th, 2014, page 04. (Spanish)

(23) “FIFA questions the president of the Disciplinary Court”. La Tercera, January 31th, 2014. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.latercera.com/noticia/fifa-cuestiona-al-presidente-del-tribunal-de-disciplina/

(24) “Universidad Católica shows its claws in the attack and leaps to the top.” El Mercurio Deportes, February 1st, 2014, page 02. (Spanish)

(25) “ANFP rebukes Botto for ‘Club Deportivo Palestino’s case'”. El Mercurio Deportes, February 1st, 2014, page 02. (Spanish)

(26) PalestinoHistorico.cl, Outstanding Players.
Link: https://palestinohistorico.cl/en/outstanding-players/

(27) “Club Deportivo O’Higgins demands to take out a map in a Club Deportivo Palestino’s jersey”, PrensaFutbol.cl, June 4th, 2014. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.prensafutbol.cl/10115-ohiggins-exige-sacar-mapa-en-camiseta-de-palestino/

(28) “Pablo Hoffmann is suspended from his duties at O’Higgins for requesting a change in a Club Deportivo Palestino’s jersey”, FutbolRebelde.org, June 9th, 2014. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.futbolrebelde.org/blog/?p=6131

(29) “Players from Club Deportivo Palestino carried maps painted on their arms in honor of the victims”, The Clinic Online, July 20th, 2014. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.theclinic.cl/2014/07/20/jugadores-de-palestino-llevaron-mapas-pintados-en-sus-brazos-en-honor-a-las-victimas/

(30) “Palestino turned it around in the discounts against Cobresal and moves away from relegation”, espn.cl, November 14, 2021. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.espn.cl/futbol/reporte?juegoId=597683

(31) “Palestino maintained the illusion of classifying to Copa Sudamericana with a draw in Curicó”, Al Aire Libre – Deportes en Cooperativa, November 28th, 2021. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.alairelibre.cl/noticias/deportes/futbol/campeonato-nacional/palestino-mantuvo-la-ilusion-de-clasificar-a-la-sudamericana-con-empate/2021-11-28/200419.html#gal_id&slide=foto_3

(32) “Israeli colonial expansion in the West Bank grew by 28% with Trump, according to NGO”, swissinfo.ch, April 14th, 2021. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.swissinfo.ch/spa/israel-palestina_expansi%C3%B3n-colonial-israel%C3%AD-en-cisjordania-creci%C3%B3-un-28–con-trump–seg%C3%BAn-ong/46531588

(33) “Israel/OPT: 10 Thing you need to know about ‘Annexation’ “, Amnesty International, July 3rd 2020.
Link: https://www.amnesty.ie/israel-opt-10-things-you-need-to-know-about-annexation/

(34) “Basic laws. STATE: The law of the land”. Embassy of Israel in Spain. Reviewed December 2021. (Spanish)
Link: https://embassies.gov.il/madrid/AboutIsrael/State/Pages/ESTADO-Ley.aspx

(35) ‘Military Courts’. Addameer. Prisoner Support and Human Rights Association, July 2017. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.addameer.org/es/content/tribunales-militares

‘Israel/West Bank: must grant equal rights to Palestinians’. Human Rights Watch, December 17th, 2019. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.hrw.org/es/news/2019/12/17/israel/cisjordania-debe-conceder-la-igualdad-de-derechos-los-palestinos

(36) “3 keys to understanding why the law that defines Israel as a ‘Jewish nation-state’ is so controversial”, BBC.com, July 19th, 2018. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-internacional-44891254

“The Israeli Parliament approves the law of the Jewish nation-state”, Elperiodico.com, July 19th, 2018. (Spanish)
Link: https://www.elperiodico.com/es/internacional/20180719/el-parlamento-israeli-aprueba-la-ley-del-estado-nacion-judio-6951046